Методическая разработка "The Great North Drama"
Методическая разработка "The Great North Drama"
Автор: Емельянова Наталия Ивановна
МБОУ "Видновская СОШ № 6", г.Видное, Московская область
Чтение представляет собой сложный психолингвистический процесс восприятия текста, результатом которого является его понимание. Практика обучения навыкам чтения показала, что учащиеся затрудняются понимать письменную речь с одного предъявления, что не соответствует естественным условиям восприятия информации. Одной из основных особенностей понимания как раз и является умение соотносить известные слова с новым контекстом, т.е. понимать каждый раз заново одни и те же слова в новых спонтанных предложениях.
Для того, чтобы реализовать острую проблему понимания надо проводить серьезную кропотливую работу с семантизацией и трансформацией лексики, так как развить навыки понимания можно лишь тогда, когда учащийся не только узнает слова и структуры, но и заменяет их эквивалентными образцами, проникая таким образом в тайны комбинаторики.
Все сказанное выше способствовало тому, что на этапе после чтения текста стали использоваться упражнения, составленные по принципу комбинаторики, направленные на формирование навыков спонтанного понимания текста. Учитель, удачно комбинируя языковый материал, создает наиболее эффективные условия для практики в чтении все новых предложений и формирования навыков понимания синтетического вида чтения (спонтанного). СОШ№9 в течение 2018-2019 года использовались аналогичные упражнения, чтобы определить способствуют ли они улучшению понимания прочитанного текста. В начале года был дан текст, составленный из лексики 6, 7 и 8 классов для исходной проверки понимания и выполнены задания «post-reading»
Text 1. THE GREAT NORTH DRAMA
One of the great dramas of the North takes place in the tundra every autumn. When heavy snow covers the ground and it becomes impossible to get enough food from under the snow reindeer get ready to move to the south towards the woods; where the food could be got easier and where there is much more of it in the winter.
The reindeer prepare for the great move. They gather into a large group. The life of every reindeer depends upon his reaching the group in time. It is very important for every one of them to be close to the group this time of the year.
The group usually is headed by a leader; who is the strongest, the biggest, and the bravest of the reindeer.
The leader organizes the group, guards it, and defends on it. He knows no fear. Whenever the trouble comes he is ready to fight. He leads way when it becomes difficult. He chooses the right time to run and rest. He is the first one to discover the enemy and to act before it attacks.
The worst enemies of the reindeer are the wolves. There are a lot of them around. As soon as the reindeer begin to move on their way, the wolves arrive. They come close to the group and accompany them for weeks. The wolves choose an older or an ill reindeer and watch him for some time. When looking for the food he leaves the group and walks a few yards aside, the wolves immediately get around him and cut his way back. Soon the reindeer discovers what has happened. He is surprised. He feels the trouble, but is alone with the wolves all around him. Now he can depend upon himself. The wolves try to jump at him. If he is strong enough he fights back killing some of the wolves. The wolves let him stand alone for some time walking around him and resting before the next attack. They know that they have all the advantages over him and would kill him now.
The reindeer has to walk around and be very attentive expecting his enemy to jump at any time. He has to be prepared for the next fight. He doesn’t expect any help because the rest of the reindeer had moved far away by now. He can’t eat because his attention is on his enemy all the time. A few minutes pass by. The wolves wait and rest. Their purpose is to catch the reindeer by surprise and they usually achieve it. Suddenly they launch a new attack. They run at him from behind and try to jump at his neck. The strongest of the wolves makes a long jump and gets his teeth into the reindeer’s back. He hangs on him and makes every effort to bring him down with his weight. At this time the rest of the wolves come fast at him. Now the fight doesn’t last very long any more. The reindeer is down and the wolves kill him immediately.
The wolves eat the reindeer, stay for some time and rest, then move on. Soon they catch the group again and continue to follow it with the same purpose. They kill another reindeer, and then the next and the next. This race goes on and on. Hundreds of reindeer lose their lives in the terrible struggle with the wolves by the time their group arrives at the new place.
Task 1. Alternative statements
For each of the questions 1-24 decide which of the statements are true or false.
1. The reindeer prepare for the great fun.
2. Soon the reindeer realize that their independent life begins.
3. It was the time to move to the south.
4. The group is headed by a leader.
5. The leader offers them to start on the great journey.
6. Nobody leads the way when it becomes difficult.
7. The leader is the first one to discover the enemy.
8. There are a lot of tigers around.
9. The best friends of the reindeer are wolves.
10. The wolves accompany the reindeer for weeks.
11. The wolves choose an older or ill reindeer.
12. The wolves immediately get around the reindeer who leaves the group and cut his way back.
13. The reindeer discovers what has happened but he is not surprised.
14. The reindeer fights and kills one of the wolves.
15. The wolves have no advantages over the alone wolf.
16. The reindeer doesn’t expect any help, because the rest of the reindeer had moved far away.
17. The wolves’ purpose is to catch the reindeer by surprise.
18. The reindeer makes a long jump.
19. The rest of the wolves come fast to eat the reindeer.
20. Soon the wolves catch the group again and continue to follow it.
21. The wolves don’t kill another reindeer.
22. The wolves’ race doesn’t go on.
23. The reindeer lose their lives in the terrible struggle with the wolves.
24. At last the group of reindeer arrives at the new place.
Decide which of the variants (А, В, C, D) best completes the sentence with regards to what was stated in the text and mark the corresponding letter.
1. One of the great dramas of the North takes place in the tundra every
2. Reindeer get ready to move to the
3.The reindeer prepare for the great
4. It is very important for every one of them to be close to the
5. The first reindeer to discover the enemy is the
a) weakest reindeer
b) the smallest reindeer
c) the bravest reindeer
d) the oldest reindeer
6. The worst enemies of the reindeer are
a) the tigers
b) the lions
c) the bears
d) the wolves
7. The wolves appear as soon as the reindeer begin
a) to eat
b) to rest
c) to move
d) to sleep
8. The wolves choose an older reindeer who
a) leaves the group
b) leads the group
c) reaches the group
d) defends the group
9. The attacked reindeer can
a) run away
b) kill some of the wolves
c) fight for a long time
d) wait and rest after each attack
10. The purpose of the wolves is
a) to catch the reindeer by surprise
b) to give him a chance to eat his food
c) let him to escape
d) to allow other reindeer to defend him
Task 3. Arrange sentences A - J in the order they appear in the text
A. The worst enemies of the reindeer are wolves
B. The reindeer prepare for the move because it becomes impossible to get enough food from under the snow
C. One of the great dramas of the North takes place in the tundra every autumn
D. The wolves choose an older and an ill reindeer and watch him for some time
E. It is very important for every one of them to be close to the group this time of the year
F. The group is usually headed by a leader, who is the strongest, the biggest and the bravest of the reindeer
G.When looking for the food an old reindeer leaves the group and walks a few yards aside, the wolves immediately get around him and cut his way back
H. The leader organizes the group, guards it, and defends it
I. The reindeer is down and the wolves kill him immediately
J. Hundreds of reindeer lose their lives in the terrible struggle with the wolves.
Keys: 1-C; 2-В; 3-E; 4-F; 5-H; 6-A; 7-D; 8 C; 9-I; 10–J
Ответы на задания «post-reading» были взяты за исходный уровень понимания текста. Результаты понимания были на среднем уровне.
Многие тексты, читаемые в течение учебного года, проверялись посредством упражнений, специально составленных и подобранных. Например, методические разработки в виде альтернативных заявлений использовались устно учителем. В течение всего года учащиеся имели возможность тренировать навыки аудирования при проверке понимания прочитанных текстов. Другие упражнения по проверке понимания проводились письменно.
В конце учебного года была проведена вторая, заключительная проверка. Контрольный текст для исходной проверки был составлен на базе языкового материала 6, 7, 8 и 9 классов, что указывает на большую сложность этого текста, по сравнению с предъявленным в начале года.
Text 2. для заключительной проверки понимания
The Roaring Machine Liberated Reindeer From Their Enemies
This year cold and bad weather came early. Heavy snow added more trouble. The snow became thick and hard to break in order to provide grass and leaves from under it. Soon the reindeer came to realize that their independent life was over, hard and thick snow reminded them that the time had come to move to the south.
The group had gathered and the leader’s call rang long and clear like an order for all to hear and to carry out. The reindeer raised their heads and stepped closer to each other. It seemed as if the leader had offered them to start on the great journey and all shared his enthusiasm.
The wolves did not miss their opportunity. They discovered the group as soon as the reindeer had moved a few kilometers. They stepped out of the white tundra and moved directly behind the reindeer. They were thin and hungry but in several weeks running along with the reindeer for several hundred kilometers, they would become strong again with fine coats of grey fur.
Soon there were more of them. They were active and aggressive ready to get into action whenever the opportunity offered itself. Soon the first reindeer was caught by them, then the next and the next. Many more were added to the number of those who wanted to step aside for tasty grass or a nice green branch. The wolves were always hungry they were never satisfied. They killed the reindeer with professional enthusiasm, which was their natural wolfish occupation shared by all wolves in tundra. Then suddenly one day something happened. A great big machine came flying like a bird in the sky. The roaring machine was terrible. It came nearer and nearer and it roared like a storm. The wolves raised their heads and looked at the terrible bird in the sky. They understood what it was because they had seen it before. It reminded some of them of the horrible experience it had produced before. They felt trouble. The wolves immediately broke away from the reindeer and run as fast as they could. Inside the terrible machine two military men
were sitting at the wide open door. They took aim quickly and shot at the wolves. They shot with good professional experience and after each shot a wolf would turn over and fall down on the snow. They flew directly behind the wolves killing more and more of them. Soon the roaring machine flew over a hill and was heard no more.
It went after the wolves who were running further and further away. The reindeer were liberated from their enemies and moved on their journey.
Task 1. Listen and mark the sentence T or F
1. It was not hard to find grass and leaves to eat.
2. Snow was thin to break to provide food under it.
3. Soon reindeer realized that the only way to cope with hunger was to move to the south.
4. The leader’s roar was long and clear.
5. The reindeer obeyed the leader’s order to gather closer to each other and start on the great journey.
6. The wolves discovered the group as soon as the reindeer have moved a few kilometers.
7. The wolves began running after the reindeer.
8. The wolves were very aggressive> because they has nothing to eat.
9. They attacked the reindeer who stepped aside for tasty grass.
10. The wolves killed their victims with stubborn persistence.
11. The main occupation of all wolves in tundra was killing the reindeer.
12. One day this tradition was broke.
13. A big unusual bird appeared in the sky.
14. A great machine came flying like a bird in the sky.
15. A great machine was flying without engine.
16. The roaring machine was terrible.
17. The wolves reminded the similar machine killed a lot of their species some time before.
18. The wolves hadn’t any desire to get the terrible experience once more.
19. The wolves immediately ran as fast as the could far away from the reindeer.
20. The door of the machine opened and two military men took the camera and began to take pictures.
21. The men were sitting at the window..
22. After each shot a wolf would turn over and fall down on the snow.
23. The helicopter flew directly behind the wolves and threw bags with food down on the earth.
24. The reindeer were safe.
Task 2. Match the headings (A - E) to the paragraphs (1 - 4). There is an extra heading you do not need.
A. An exciting entertainment.
B. An excellent opportunity.
C. Wolves’ occupation.
D. The time to leave.
E. A big roaring machine.
Key: 1 — D; 2 — В; 3 - C; 4 — E.
Task 3. Circle the correct words:
1. The snow became thick/hard to break it.
2. The reindeer gathered after leader’s call/death.
3. The wolves moved behind reindeer because they were cruel/hungry.
4. Soon the wolves would become gay/strong again.
5. The wolves were never aggressive/satisfied.
6. The two military men were killing the wolves to enjoy/liberate wolves.
Key. 1 - thick; 2 - call; 3 - hungry; 4 - strong; 5 - satisfied; 6- liberate.
Task 4. Choose the right variant
1. This year cold weather came:
c) after heavy rain
d) after heavy snow
2. The reindeer realized that their life was over
3. The animals were running for several hundred kilometers through
a) the steppe
b) the forest
c) the moss
d) the tundra
4. All wolves in tundra shared professional occupation to:
a) follow the reindeer
b) to kill the reindeer
c) to compete with the reindeer
d) to play with the reindeer
5. The wolves realized what the roaring machine was because they
a) had flown on in before
b) had heard it before
c) had damaged it before
d) had seen it before
6. The roaring machine was
a) a car
b) a plane
c) a helicopter
d) a sledge
Key: 1 - b; 2 - c; 3 - d; 4 - b; 5 - d; 6.
Как и во время исходной проверки этот текст был сначала прочитан учащимися, после чтения они делали задания только в режиме «post-reading». Результаты проверки показали, что учащиеся продемонстрировали более высокий прирост понимания усвоенного материала по сравнению с данными в начале учебного года. Это дает нам основание сделать заключение об эффективности методических разработок в процессе обучения синтетическому чтению.